Style Guide

All submissions to SEN must be submitted online at Please note that only original contributions that advance scholarly research in the field can be considered. Articles should not be under consideration by any other journal.

In order to main anonymity during the reviewing process, the author’s name or any other identifying information should not appear in the main article document. An abstract of 100-50 words, describing the main arguments and conclusions of the article, should be submitted separately. The author’s full name and academic affiliation, as you wish them to appear in the journal, and a short biographical statement (about 100 words) should also be submitted as a separate document.

Article Length

Articles submitted should be at least 5500 words, but no longer than 8000 words, including endnotes. References do not count towards the limit.


Quotations should be enclosed within ‘single’ quotation marks. Substantial quotations of forty or more words should be indented without quotation marks. Quotations within a quotation should be enclosed within “double” quotation marks. Any alteration in a quotation should be acknowledged, for example: (Jones 1990:120-21, emphasis added).


Please keep notes to a minimum. They will be printed as endnotes and should be listed as a separate section at the end of the article before the list of References. Only citations that include explanatory information should be presented as endnotes. Most citations should be included in the main text using the (author-date) system.


If section headings are used, their hierarchy should be clear and consistent and should not exceed two levels. Section headings should always be in bold and centred.


These should be properly titled and numbered consecutively in the order in which they appear in the text.


These include diagrams, maps, images and graphs. They must be referred to as ‘Figure’, must be titled and must be numbered consecutively in the order in which they appear in the text.

Necessary permission must be obtained by the author for the reproduction of any copyrighted works.

Style Conventions

  • Only British spelling should be used
  • In a list, the serial comma (or Oxford comma) should be used.
  • Foreign language text should always be italicised.
  • Abbreviations, acronyms, and technical terms should be explained in the text the first time they occur. If they are numerous they may be listed separately after the article.
  • Proper nouns should have Capital Letters according to standard practice and the author’s wishes as long as continuity is maintained throughout the submission.
  • The United States should be used as a noun, while U.S. should be used as an adjective.
  • For clarity, the following should be used as a guide for these often confusing cases: First World War, Second World War, the Cold War, World War I, World War II, either Eastern Europe or eastern Europe, but consistent use only.

Dates and Numbers

Dates should appear in the following format: 1 June 2010.

Numbers of 100 or more should be written as numerals. Very large, round numbers may be spelled out, such as two billion or 2.5 billion.

Numbers less than 100 should be spelled out unless they contain a decimal or fraction. The exception is when they are used to express a percent. In that case, the numeral and the % sign should be used. Example: 8% or 8.5%.

In-text Citations

The ‘Harvard’ system (author-date) should be used for bibliographical references in the text and notes: give author’s name (space) year of publication (colon) page number(s) in parentheses (round brackets). All of the following citation placements are acceptable:

As Mann (1993) argued …
Mann’s (1993) classic study …
‘It is possible to steer between Marx and Weber’ (Mann 1993:736-37).

Please note that the citation should always appear within the same sentence as the cited material. The only exception is when providing the citation for indented quotations. The citation should then appear after the last period of the quotation.

Works by up to three co-authors or co-editors should cite the surnames of all authors. Example: (Skocpol and Weir 1984) or (Adams, Smith, and Thomas 2003). Those with four or more authors or editors should be cited using only the surname of the first followed by ‘et al.’ (King et al. 1994).

Two or more references from the same author should be separated by a comma: (Mann 1986, 1993). Two or more references from different authors should be separated by a semi-colon and listed in alphabetical order: (Mann 1986; Skocpol and Weir 1984).

If authors use endnotes, citations in the notes here should conform to the guidelines for citations in the text and should not adopt a different style (i.e. (Kohn 1944:21) not Kohn, 1944, p. 21).


  • Full bibliographical details of all texts cited in the article should be typed separately at the end of the article and titled ‘References’ (bold and centred). Authors should list works alphabetically with authors’/editors’ last name first, followed by their first name, which should be included if at all possible (it is understood that this will not always be possible, but it is greatly preferred).
  • Use headline-style capitalisation in all titles of books, journal articles, or journals. This means that the first letter of all words (except articles) should be capitalised. If an article is at the beginning of the title or after a colon (thus at the beginning of the sub-title), then the article should be capitalised.
  • For books, include the city of publication. If more than one city is cited, please use only the first city. If published in a U.S. city, please include the state abbreviation. It is not necessary to include the state if it is obvious from the name of the publisher (e.g. Berkeley: University of California Press; NOT Berkeley, CA: University of California Press).
  • If the work cited is an article from a journal or other periodical, the volume number and page numbers should be listed. Authors should not use ‘p’ or ‘pp’ to indicate page numbers. If the work is from an edited book, page numbers are not cited.
  • If more than one work by a particular author is cited, then the works should be listed in chronological order (oldest work first, followed by subsequent works). If there is more than one work by an author in one year, the date of the first work (alphabetically determined) is given as 19??a and the second as 19??b, and so on. If two authors with the same surname publish in the same year, the citation in the text should include the initials if needed, and followed by the date: (T. Jackson 1995:13; W. Jackson 1995:265).
  • Titles in the references section that are in languages other than English should be italicised in the normal way. If titles are in non-roman script, a transliterated version should be supplied.

The following examples should be used as models for SEN’s citation style:

Single author or editor (book)

Whitehead, Laurence. 2002. Democratization: Theory and Experience. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

In text: (Whitehead 2002:45)

Unger, Jonathan, ed. 1993. Using the Past to Serve the Present: Historiography and Politics in Contemporary China. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.

In text: (Unger 1993)

Two or three authors or editors (book)

Laver, Michael and Kenneth A. Shepsle. 1996. Making and Breaking Governments: Cabinets and Legislatures in Parliamentary Democracies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

In text: (Laver and Shepsle 1996:49)

Goldman, Merle and Elizabeth J. Perry, eds. 2002. Changing Meanings of Citizenship in Modern China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

In text: (Goldman and Perry 2002)

King, Gary, Robert O. Keohane, and Sidney Verba. 1994. Designing Social Inquiry: Scientific Inference in Qualitative Research. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

In text: (King, Keohane, and Verba 1994:55)

O’Meara, Patrick, Howard Mehlinger, and Matthew Krain, eds. 2000. Globalization and the Challenges of a New Century: A Reader. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

In text: (O’Meara, Mehlinger, and Krain 2000)

Four or more authors or editors (book)

Those with four or more authors or editors should be cited using only the surname of the first followed by a [comma] et al.

Author’s work contained in an edited book

Hutchinson, John. 2007. ‘Warfare, Remembrance and National Identity’ In Nationalism and Ethnosymbolism: History, Culture and Ethnicity in the Formation of Nations, ed. Athena S. Leoussi and Steven Grosby. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

In text: (Hutchinson 2007)

Baum, Richard and Alexei Shevchenko. 1999. ‘The “State of the State”‘ In The Paradox of China’s Post-Mao Reforms, ed. Merle Goldman and Roderick MacFarquhar. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

In text: (Baum and Shevchenko 1999:349-50)

Wang Meng. 1984. ‘Eye of the Night’ Trans. Donald A. Gibbs. In Roses and Thorns: The Second Blooming of the Hundred Flowers in Chinese Fiction, 1979-1980, ed. Perry Link. Berkeley: University of California Press.

In text: (Wang 1984:51)

Article in a journal

Please include the volume and issue number, as well as the entire page range of the article. The issue number should be placed in parentheses after the volume number.

Malagodi, Mara. 2008. ‘Forging the Nepali Nation through Law: A Reflection on the Use of Western Legal Tools in a Himalayan Kingdom’, Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism 8 (3): 433-52.

In text: (Malagodi 2008)

Thompson, Andrew and Ralph Fevre. 2001. ‘The National Question: Sociological Reflections on Nation and Nationalism’. Nations and Nationalism 7 (3): 297-315.

In text: (Thompson and Fevre 2001:299)

A translation

If known, the name of the translator should always be included.

Golomstock, Igor. 1990. Totalitarian Art: In the Soviet Union, the Third Reich, Fascist Italy and the People’s Republic of China. Trans. Robert Chandler. London: Collins Harvill.

In text: (Golomstock 1990:127)

Wang Meng. 1984. ‘Eye of the Night’ Trans. Donald A. Gibbs. In Roses and Thorns: The Second Blooming of the Hundred Flowers in Chinese Fiction, 1979-1980, ed. Perry Link. Berkeley: University of California Press.

In text: (Wang 1984:51)

An edition other than the first

The date of the edition from which the author is working should be given. If the work cited is a second or subsequent edition, the author must indicate which edition was used. If the edition is called a ‘Revised Edition’ and no number is provided, then use ‘Rev. ed.’

Anderson, Benedict. 1991. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. 2nd ed. London: Verso.

In text: (Anderson 1991)

Article in a magazine or newspaper (author identified)

Ni, Ching-Ching. 2002. ‘Dens of Cyber Addicts’ Los Angeles Times, 28 June.

In text: (Ni 2002)

Article in a Mazazine or Newspaper (author not identified)

The Economist. 2007. ‘Northern Ireland: Virtual Democracy’ 3 February: 36.

In text: (The Economist 2007:36)


Lewis, Catherine. 2004. Interview by the author, 9 September, London.

In text: (Lewis 2004)

Howard, Robert. 1999. Interview by Anna White, 18 July, New York. 7

In text: (Howard 1999)

Nanjo, Fumio. 2006. “Interview with Fumio Nanjo, Artistic Director of the Singapore Biennale” Interview by Susan Kendzulak. Yishu: Journal of Contemporary Chinese Art 5 (4): 18-20.

Sources Available Online

If a source is available online, add a new sentence with the website address:

[Citation]. Available at: [URL].